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Judo Techniques

Tachi Waza: Judo Throwing Techniques

1. Te Waza - Hand Techniques

Tai Otoshi - Body Drop Throw
Ippon Seoi Nage - One Arm Shoulder Throw
Morote Seoi Nage - Both Arm Shoulder Throw
Kata Guruma - Shoulder Wheel
Kibisu Gaeshi - Heal Reap
Kouchi Gaeshi - Minor Inside Reap Counter
Kuchiki Taoshi - Dead Tree Drop
Morote Gari - Two Hand Reap
Obi Otoshi - Belt Drop
Obi Tori Gaeshi - Belt Grab Turnover
Sukui Nage - Scooping Throw
Sumi Otoshi - Corner Drop
Uchimata Sukashi - Inner Thigh Throw Counter
Uki Otoshi - Floating Drop Throw
Yama Arashi - Mountain Storm

2. Koshi Waza

Uki Goshi - Floating Hip Throw
O Goshi - Major Hip Throw
Tsuri Komi Goshi - Lift and Pull Hip Throw
Sode Tsuri Komi Goshi - Life and Pulling Sleeve Hip Throw
Koshi Guruma - Hip Wheel Throw
Harai Goshi - Sweeping Loin Throw
Hane Goshi - Springing Hip Throw
Ushiro Goshi - Rear Hip Throw
Utsuri Goshi - Changing Hip Throw
Uki Goshi - Floating Technique Throw

3. Ashi Waza - Foot and Leg Techniques

Uchi Mata - Inside Thigh Throw
Osoto Gari - Major Outer Reaping Throw
Osoto Maki Komi - Major Outer Winding Throw
Osoto Otoshi - Major Outer Rear Drop Throw
Kosoto Gari - Minor Outer Reaping Throw
Kosoto Gake - Minor Outer Breaking Throw
Ouchi Gari - Major Inner Reaping Throw
Kouchi Gari - Minor Inner Reaping Throw
Deashi Harai - Advanced Foot Sweep
Okuri Ashi Harai - Following Foot Sweep
Hiza Guruma - Knee Wheel Throw
Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi - Propping Ankle Throw
Harai Tsuri Komi Ashi - Lift Pull Foot Sweep
Uchi Maki Komi - Inner Winding Throw
Soto Maki Komi - Outer Winding Throw
Hane Goshi Gaeshi - Springing Hip Counter
Harai Goshi Gaeshi - Sweeping Hip Counter
Harai Tsuri Komi Ashi - Sweeping Lifting Foot
O Guruma - Major Wheel
Osoto Gaeshi - Major Inner Reap Counter
Osoto Guruma - Major Outer Wheel
Ouchi Gaeshi - Major Inner Reap Counter
Tsubame Gaeshi - Swallow Counter
Uchimata Gaeshi - Inner Thigh Counter

Sutemi Waza - Sacrifice Techniques

1. Ma Sutemi Waza - Rear Sacrifice Techniques

Tomoe Nage - Somersault or Stomach Throw
Hiki Komi Gaeshi - Pull Down Reversal
Sumi Gaeshi - Corner Throw
Tawara Gaeshi - Rice Bag Reversal
Ura Nage - Rear Throw

2. Yoko Sutemi Waza - Side Sacrifice Techniques

Yoko Tomoe Nage - Side Entry Somersault or Stomach Throw
Daki Wakare - Embrace Seperation
Hane Maki Komi - Winding Spring Hip Throw
Harai Maki Komi - Winding Hip Sweep Throw
Kouchi Maki Komi - Small Inner Reap Winding
Osoto Maki Komi - Major Outer Reap Winding
Soto Maki Komi - Outer Wrap Around Throw
Tani Otoshi - Valley Drop
Uchi Maki Komi - Inner Winding Throw
Uchi Mata Maki Komi - Inner Thigh Winding Throw
Uki Waza - Floating Throw
Yoko Gake - Side Body Drop
Yoko Guruma - Side Wheel
Yoko Otoshi - Side Drop
Yoko Wakare - Side Seperation

Newaza: Grappling Techniques

1. Shime Waza: Strangling Techniques

Hadaka Jime - Naked Strangle
Okuri Eri Jime - Sliding Lapel Stangle
Kataha Jime - One Side Strangle
Nami Juji Jime - Natural Cross Strangle
Gyaku Juji Jime - Reverse Cross Strangle
Kata Juji Jime - Half Cross Strangle
Kata Te Jime - One Hand Strangle
Ryote Jime Sankaku Jime - Triangular Strangle
Sode Guruma Jime - Sleeve Wheel Strangle
Tsukkomi Jime - Thurst Strangle

2. Kansetsu Waza: Armlock Techniques

Juji Gatame - Cross Armlock
Ude Garami - Arm Coil Lock
Ude Gatame - Arm Lock
Ashi Gatame - Leg Armlock
Hiza Gatame - Knee Armlock
Sankaku Gatame - Triangular Armlock
Te Gatame - Hand Armlock
Waki Gatame - Armpit Armlock

3. Osaekomi Waza: - Control Techniques

Kesa Gatame - Cross Chest Holding
Kuzure Kesa Gatame - Modified Cross Chest Holding
Ushiro Kesa Gatame - Backward Cross Chest Holding
Makura Kesa Gatame - Pillow Cross Chest Holding
Kata Gatame - Shoulder Holding
Kami Shiho Gatame - Upper Four Corner Holding
Kuzure Kami Shiho Gatame - Modified Upper Four Corner Holding
Yoko Shiho Gatame - Side Four Corner Holding
Kuzure Yoko Shiho Gatame - Modified Side Four Corner Holding
Tate Shiho Gatame - Vertical Four Corner Holding

Kinshi Waza: Forbidden Techniques

Ashi Garami - Entangled Leg Lock
Do Jime - Body Squeeze
Kani Basame - Scissor Throw
Kawazu Gake - Supporting Leg Hook

Evolution of Judo Techniques by the IJF

One of the things that makes judo such a dynamic sport is that its techniques are constantly evolving. Judo contestants at all levels of competition – from the world championships and Olympics to everyday judo training – constantly study their opponents, and analyze their own strengths and weaknesses, to discover and apply new methods of attack and defense. These new methods result in new gripping patterns, movements, positions, and ultimately "new" judo.

The evolution of tomoe-nage Yet, at the same time, it is interesting to note that it is not the function of judo techniques that change. Indeed, basic laws of physics and the nature of human anatomy and movement result in the fact that many of the principles underlying the judo techniques do not change. Applying osoto gari to-day requires the same principles of off balancing and application of force as it did 100 years ago. And, many of these principles have existed in combat arts for centuries before judo was even created.

What does evolve, however, are the forms that the various techniques take. Thus, throwing seoi nage to-day may require unorthodox grips of the uniform from unusual positions and moves. How people create and apply these variations differ depending on their culture, sex, body type and shape, style of judo, and even the weight category of the competition! Thus, it is no wonder that different regions of the world, and even within any single country, develop their own particular styles and approaches to judo. Yet, the principles of balance and power application underlying these moves remain constant.

Even newly emerging techniques of the last decade or so, such as the pick ups or modified versions of kata guruma (explained above) and the like may not be as "new" as one thinks. Indeed, many of these variations, modifications, and evolutions of judo techniques that we witness to to-day exist in ju jitsu, from which judo was created, and other combat arts. Thus, they may only be new to contemporary judo; many of these have actually existed for centuries.

What is probably true, however, is that the appearance and disappearance of judo techniques come and go. As time, people, and cultures change, these changes are sure to bring with them changes in the forms of judo, given the constants that exist in their function. This evolution in judo contributes to making judo an exciting and ever changing sport and art.

SOURCE: (International Judo Federation)

The Top Techniques Used in Contemporary Judo

Powerful action

There are many different types of nage waza and katame waza. For example, the International Judo Federation, the parent organization of all national federations of judo in the world, officially lists 66 different nage waza, and 29 different katame waza (9 osae waza, 11 shime waza­, and 9 different kansetsu waza). In actual judo practice, however, it is unrealistic for anyone to master all of these various techniques. In reality, most judo students only master a few techniques, training diligently enough so that their techniques are effective against all different types of opponents of different sizes, strengths, and styles. Also, while most judo students are taught a "basic" way of performing a technique by their teacher, or sensei, most students who become proficient in judo gradually modify and adapt their favorite techniques to their own size, body frame, movements, and abilities. They may pull differently here, push differently there, or use their feet in a unique way. In this fashion, each judo student¡¯s technique is unique to him or herself. When you master a technique well enough to make it singularly effective for yourself, that technique is called your tokui waza, which literally means "special" or "favourite" technique.

Of the many different techniques of throwing, pinning, choking, and arm locking that exist, a few have become very popular in recent years, and can be readily seen in competition and practice. In the remainder of this chapter, we will introduce you to some of the most common, and spectacular judo techniques used in today¡¯s judo world.

Seoi Nage

Seoi nage, or shoulder throw, is one of the most representative throws of judo.

- When attacking with seoi nage, you pull your opponent to break their balance forward.

- Then, pivoting on one leg, you twirl your entire body around so that you are facing the same direction as your opponent, with both your legs evenly balanced on the ground.

- Pulling your opponent onto your back, you then lift their body with your legs. While in mid-air, you twist by lunging your shoulder forward while your arms guide him to the ground in a spectacular fashion.

Tai Otoshi

Tai otoshi, or body drop, is a hand technique that relies heavily on precision, speed, timing, and movement. In tai otoshi, you break your opponent¡¯s balance to the front diagonal corner by pulling them in that direction. In the instant that their weight shifts to the balls of their feet, you pivot your body in the same direction as them, while shifting one of your feet directly in front of their lead foot. At that split second, you drive your arms and entire body to the ground directly in front of you, pushing off both your legs for extra support and leverage. Your opponent drops dramatically to their front corner, rotating over onto their back as they come crashing to the ground.

O Soto Gari

O soto gari, or major outside reap, is a classical judo throw to the rear corner.

- In o soto gari, you break your opponent¡¯s balance to the rear corner. When you do so, their weight will be largely on one leg and to the rear of the foot.

- At the same time, you bring your body alongside your opponent¡¯s, by driving your outside foot forward to their side.

- While your opponent is off balance, you swing the other leg behind theirs, and bring it back swiftly and strongly to reap their leg. Lifting their supporting leg off the ground, their body is airborne, their legs rotating to the rear. You guide them to the ground, ensuring they fall on their backs with speed, force, and control.

Harai Tsuri Komi Ashi

Harai tsuri komi ashi, or literally "sweeping lifting foot", is another powerful foot technique. While breaking your opponent¡¯s balance to the front diagonal corner, you sweep the front portion of their foot strongly and swiftly with yours. When done at precisely the right moment, their body lifts into the air. When airborne, you rotate their body with your hands, bringing them crashing to the ground.

O Uchi Gari

- In o uchi gari, you break your opponent¡¯s balance directly to the rear. Bringing your body in close to theirs, you push them so that the impetus of your movement continues to drive them backward.

- While balancing on one leg, your free leg then grazes the mat in a large, circular motion, going behind one of their legs and coming back to reap it. Because your opponent¡¯s weight and balance were on their heels at the point of attack, they begin to fall straight backward when you reap their leg.

- You continue to drive forward, down and to the ground, to complete the throw, often allowing your own body to land right on top of them.

While this throw is used on its own proficiently by many, it is used by an even greater number of judoists in combination with other techniques, especially those throwing the opponent forward, such as uchi mata or seo inage, because it takes advantage of your opponent¡¯s reactions in defending against o uchi gari. The ability to use o uchi gari in combination with so many other techniques makes it one of the most versatile and well-used techniques in judo.

Uchi Mata

Uchi mata, or inner thigh throw, is one of the most powerful judo throws.

- When attacking with uchi mata, you pull your opponent to break their balance forward.

- Then, you throw your body into and under your opponent¡¯s, as you rotate your own body in the same forward direction. While doing so, you make sure your hips go under your opponent¡¯s so that you can lift them off the ground.

- Balancing on one leg, and while lifting with your body and pulling with your hands, your free leg swings upward in between theirs, making contact with the inside portion of their thigh. You complete the throw by rotating them in mid-air and driving them to the ground onto their back.

This throw is used by many great judo champions, each with his or her own special style.

Tomoe Nage

Tomoe nage, or circle throw, is one of the throws that comes to mind when you think of judo.

- In tomoe nage, you break your opponent¡¯s balance forward by pulling them onto their toes.

- In the split instant when their weight is coming forward while you are pulling upward and forward, you drop your entire body down and under them, with your buttocks directly under their center of gravity.

- At the same instant, you raise one (or both) of your feet into their belly, and pushing on that leg, lift their body off the ground. Once lifted, their momentum continues to carry them forward, as they topple over onto their backs.

Tomoe nage is commonly seen on television and in movie theaters across the world, and exemplifies many of the dynamic principles of judo nage waza.

Kata Guruma

Kata guruma, or shoulder wheel, is a devastating judo throw.

- In its classical version, as practiced in judo kata, you break your opponent¡¯s balance forward and up on their toes.

- While doing so, you release one of your hands, and lowering your body, place it in between their legs while you put your shoulder under their abdomen.

- You lift your opponent by standing straight up, balancing the entire length of their body on your shoulders. You throw them by rotating your shoulders to one side, allowing their body to fall straight to the ground, while you guide them with your hands.

The classical version of kata guruma has been modified by many contemporary judoists into a dynamic and powerful version for use in current competition. In this version, you break your opponent¡¯s balance forward or to the forward corner by pulling with one of your hands. When their body comes off balance, you thrust one leg in between theirs, knee to the ground, with your head on their side and your shoulders against their belt. Instead of lifting their body by standing, however, your free outside leg shoots directly in front of their body as you sit. By doing so, their body loads onto your shoulders. You throw them by rotating your shoulders and using your hands, guiding their bodies to the ground to your side.

Pick Ups

In recent years, a whole new series of judo techniques has evolved on the contemporary judo scene. All of them involve picking up, blocking, or scooping your opponent¡¯s legs with one or both of your hands as you drive them off balance with the rest of your body.

- One version, for example, involves reaching one of your hands across to your opponent¡¯s leg on the other side, grasping the front of the trousers.

- At the same time, you push your opponent in that same direction, but block their ability to step to maintain their balance by pulling on their leg.

- Unable to regain their balance as you drive into them, they fall to their rear corner.

Ura Nage

Some of the most powerful throws in judo are the counter techniques, or kaeshi waza, in which you use the movements and power from your opponent¡¯s attack against them to throw them.

- In ura nage, or rear throw, for example, you block your opponent¡¯s forward throw, such as uchi mata, with your hips;

- grasping their body around their waist,

- you lift them in the air and throw them backwards in a spectacular fashion.

SOURCE: (International Judo Federation)

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